Purification from impurities is performed by using water.
Purification after answering the call of nature from urine and excrement:
Performed by wiping with paper, stones, or any similar pure material.
It’s also allowed to use water for purification.
Purification of body parts and clothes:
Performed by washing them with water until they are cleansed of any impurities.
For visible stains, such as menstrual blood, these stains can be overlooked if they still remain visible after washing the clothing.
For invisible stains, such as urine, it is sufficient to wash clothes only once.
Purification of clothes from a male infant’s urine:
Performed by sprinkling water on clothing.
In the case of female infant’s urine: It must be washed off.
Purification of the hem of a woman’s clothing from what it may have touched of impurity on the ground:
Performed by contact with pure ground after.
Purification of the bottom of shoes:
Performed by rubbing them against the ground as long as the remains of the najasah (impurity) have been removed.
Shafa’i states that the bottom of the shoes must be washed off.
Purification of the ground:
Pouring water over it.
Hanafi requires that the ground be dug up and impure soil removed.
Drying of the ground is its purification if the impurity is gone.
Purification of utensils that were touched by a dog’s saliva:
Performed by washing them seven times with water, with the first washing mixed with soil.
Purification of mirrors and similar objects (i.e, knives, glass, and any other surface that is smooth and has no pores):
Performed by wiping them and removing the impure remains.
Purification of cooking butter and any other similar substances:
In case of a solid: performed by taking out the impurity and what is around it.
In case of a liquid: majority of scholars say that the entire liquid becomes impure, while a credible minority say it is pure.
Purification of the skin of a dead animal (not slaughtered according to the Islamic law):
Performed by tanning.
*Note: an animal that’s permissible to eat and is slaughtered according to Islamic law is already pure.