What are the reasons for the permissibility of tayammum which are disagreed upon by the Muslim jurists?

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If one is able to use water but fears that the prayer will be over by the time he gets it and performs ablution or bathes, he may perform tayammum and pray:
Majority – disagree with the above opinion
This is the opinion of al-Albaani
According to Hanafi, dry ablution can be performed before the time for prayer has begun.
According to the majority (Maliki, Shafa’i, Hanbali, and Dawood), prayer time must begin before one is permitted to perform dry ablution.
One who performed tayammum may perform all obligatory and recommended worship after performing a single dry ablution. As long as the excuse from being exempted from regular ablution still exists, dry ablution remains valid.