Rules of the Fasting of Ramadan

Prepared by Mohamed Baianonie, Imam of the Islamic Center of Raleigh, NC

Allaah ﷻ says in the Qur'aan what may be interpreted as, "O' you who believe, fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you so that you may achieve Taqwaa (righteousness, God-fearing)." [Surat Al-Baqarah, verse 183]

The prophet Muhammad ﷺ said, "Whoever observes the fast during the month of Ramadan, (while) believing in Allaah and seeking His rewards, will have his past sins forgiven." [Reported by Imaams Bukhaari, Muslim and others]

Fasting the month of Ramadan is one of the main pillars of Islam. It is obligatory upon every sane, healthy Muslim whose reached puberty and is not traveling during the time of fasting. As for women, they must not fast if they are menstruating or having post-childbirth bleeding.

The Essential Elements Of The Fast

There are two essentials elements for your fast to be valid and accepted. They are:

You must have the intention to fast before fajr (dawn) every night during the month of Ramadan. The intention does not need to be spoken, because in reality it is an act of the heart, which does not involve the tongue. It will be fulfilled by one's intention from the heart to fast out of obedience to Allaah ﷻ seeking His pleasure.
Abstaining from acts that nullify the Fast
The second essential element for your fast to be accepted is that you abstain from the acts that nullify the fast from dawn to sunset.

If you maintain these two essential elements during fasting, then your fast will be valid and accepted.

Six Actions That Invalidate Or Nullify The Fast

All scholars have agreed that the following acts will invalidate the fast. They are:

Intentional Eating or Drinking
If someone eats or drinks due to forgetfulness, a mistake, or coercion, then his fast is still valid and should continue to fast. If you choose to eat or drink, for any reason, then your fast will become invalid.
Intentional Vomiting
If one is overcome by the urge to vomit, and vomits unintentionally, then he should continue to fast. If someone chooses to vomit, for any reason, then his fast will become invalid.
Intentional Sexual Intercourse
If one has sexual intercourse while fasting, then he must perform kaffaarah, expiation of the sin. (Fasting continuously for sixty days or if unable then one should feed sixty poor people).
Menstrual or Childbirth Bleeding
The fast becomes invalid during menstrual or post-childbirth bleeding. Even if such bleeding begins just before sunset, the fast of that day is invalid and the day must be made up at a later time.

All the actions mentioned above are agreed upon by all scholars. However, there are some other actions that are not mentioned above which are not agreed upon.

Actions That Are Permissible During Fasting

There are some actions that are permissible to do while fasting, which will not nullify the fast. For example:

Taking a shower
It is permissible to shower, for any reason, even if you are showering due to thirst or being overheated.
Rinsing the mouth and nose
It is permissible to rinse the mouth and nose without exaggeration; using too much water may cause you to swallow water, which may invalidate your fast.
Applying eyeliner or eye drops
It is permissible to apply kohl (eyeliner) or eye drops or anything else to the eyes, even if some taste from it finds its way to the throat.
Taking injections
It is also permissible to take injections for nutritional or medical purposes; there is no text that proves this invalidates the fast.
Taking suppositories
Similarly, it is permissible to have an enema or douche. The injection of liquid into the rectum through the anus for cleansing, as a laxative, or for other therapeutic purposes, or the use of a suppository (a solid medication designed to melt within a body cavity) or any other medicine that can be used in the private parts, whether in the front or back is permissible. There is no text that considers these acts to nullify the fast.
Accidental consumption
Your fast will not become invalid if you consume something that you could not protect yourself from. For example, swallowing your saliva or accidentally swallowing dust or sifted flour that has accidentally entered your mouth.
Tasting food with the tongue
Your fast will be valid even if you taste food with your tongue or use toothpaste or mouthwash as long as nothing is swallowed.
Breathing in different scents
Kissing and embracing one's spouse
It is permissible to kiss and embrace your spouse as long as one is able to control oneself.
Drawing blood
It is also permissible to draw blood in any amount for any reason. If drawing blood weakens the person, it will be considered a disliked action.
Being in a state of janaabah
Your fast will still be valid even if you find yourself in a state of janaabah (a major ritual impurity) after fajr (dawn) has arrived. Ghusl (a full bath) can still be performed once the time of fajr has begun.

Who May Be Excluded From Fasting?

There are certain situations when it is optional to fast during the month of Ramadan, however, the fast must be made up at a later date. This is the rule for the sick or for the one who is traveling.

However, women who are experiencing post-childbirth bleeding or are in their menses are not allowed to fast until their bleeding ends. They must make up the days they missed fasting at a later date.

For those who cannot fast due to a permanent illness or old age, they have to pay fidiya (feeding one poor person) for each day that they have missed.

Pregnant and nursing women, who are afraid that fasting may weaken them or the child, have the option of fasting or not. After Ramadan ends, they have the choice of fasting or paying fidiyah (feeding one poor person) for each day that they had missed during Ramadan. However, according to the Hanafi School of jurists, such women are only to make up the missed days of fasting, and they are not supposed to feed one poor person a day. On the other hand, Imaams Ahmad and Ash-Shaaf'i, hold the opinion that if such women fear only for the baby, they must pay the fidiyah and make up the days later. If they fear only for themselves or for themselves and the baby, then they are only to make up the missed days at a later date.

Recommended Acts During Ramadan

There are some acts that are recommended, and if you practice them, you will gain more rewards from Allaah ﷻ such as:

Having suhuur (pre-dawn meal) and delaying it until just before fajr (dawn) time.

We should also hurry to break the fast at sunset.

Another recommended act is that we break the fast by eating an odd number of fresh or dry dates, and if those are not available, then having a drink of water would be sufficient.

Also we can earn rewards by supplicating at the time of breaking the fast, as the prophet ﷺ used to say, Dhahabadh-dhama-oo wabtallatil-'urooqu, wa thabatal-ajru inshaa'Allaah. Which can be translated as, "The thirst has gone, the veins are moistened and Allaah willing, the reward is confirmed."

Another recommended act is that we pray taraaweeh daily after Isha

To gain even more rewards, it is recommended that during Ramadan we increase our recitation and study of the Qur'an. This is because the revelation of the Qur'an began during this time, and also Angel Gabriel used to review the Qur'an with the Prophet during this month.

We can also gain rewards by using Miswaak (a piece of root from the Araak tree found in the Hijaaz region of the Arabian Peninsula used to clean the teeth), if not available, any other cleaning tool to clean the mouth is sufficient.

We ask Allaah ﷻ to strengthen us in Ramadan, accept our fasts, and reward us with His forgiveness and the highest place in Paradise. Ameen.